For any centrifugal pump person, knowing the answers to the following six questions is key to dependable and efficient pump operation. The responses below are excerpts from a six-part series on centrifugal pump efficiency written by WWC Supply which is one of the best wholesale plumbing supply companies.
- What is efficiency?
When we talk about the efficacy of any machine, we are simply referring to how well it can convert one form of energy into another. If one unit of electricity is supplied to a machine along with its output signal, in the very same units of measure, it is the one-half unit, its efficacy is 50 percent.
The overall efficiency of a centrifugal pump is simply the ratio of this water (output) power to the shaft (input) electricity and is exemplified by the equation below:
Ef = PW / PS
Pw= the water electricity
Ps= the shaft power
- What’s the specific speed, and what is its effect on the pump curve?
Specific speed was applied to centrifugal pumps in the latter 1800s and was a modified version of one designed for tanks. Many pump manufacturers see specific velocity as the most significant contributor to centrifugal pump design. It allows the use of existing design and test data to design similar higher and lower flow pumps since the specific speed of a pump is different from its size.
The definition of a certain speed can be confusing. It’s ideal to consider this as an index number that can predict certain pump characteristics. Viewed this way, a certain speed can be helpful when choosing a pump for a particular program and predicting premature collapse because of away best efficiency point (BEP) operation.
- What are Individual efficiencies that affect operation?
Hydraulic efficiency. The shape and spacing of the impeller vanes have a direct impact on overall pump efficiency. Even though the ideal impeller would have an endless number of vanes, the real world limits us to seven to get clear water pumps and even fewer for pumps that handle larger solids.
Volumetric efficiency. Whether the volumetric efficiency of a centrifugal pump is a use of the volute or so the impeller is debatable (it’s probably both), however, WWC Supply shall include its impact here. Volumetric efficiency signifies the energy lost due to flow leakage through the wearing rings, the vane front clearances of semi-open impellers as well as the balancing holes in the rear shroud.
Mechanical efficiency. The last piece of this pump efficiency mystery is that of mechanical declines, although some of the losses aren’t always contained in published efficiency curves. In the instance of a frame-mounted pump, these declines are caused by the rotating bearings as well as the mechanical seal or packaging. For close-coupled pumps, bearing losses are figured into the engine efficiency. Again the principle of thumb follows that of volumetric efficiency, and losses increase as flow and/or specific speed decrease.
Combined efficiency. When looking at the general efficiency of a pump in performance, the efficacy of this motorist must be contained, and in several instances, that driver is going to be an electrical engineer. When the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 went into effect in December 2010, it raised the bar on motor efficiency. Today, all new motors need to meet premium efficiency criteria. A greater efficiency engine will increase the overall efficiency of a burning system but by how much? How do we calculate the joint efficiency of motors and pumps?
- How can you preserve efficiency?
A significant part of the volute is the tongue or cutwater. Its objective is to keep the flow to the throat while minimizing recirculation back into the instance. The optimum clearance between the tongue and the impeller periphery is the smallest distance that doesn’t contribute to pressure pulsations through vane tip passing. A well-designed pump is going to have a full-size impeller that satisfies these clearance standards. As soon as an impeller is trimmed, this space increases and allows more fluid to recirculate back in the instance. As recirculation increases, hydraulic efficacy decreases.
- How can curve shape affect efficiency?
A typical performance curve is relatively flat at low values of specific speed (Ns) and becomes steeper as Ns increases. Pump efficiency is cheapest at reduced values of Ns (500 and below) and increases since Ns increases. It reaches its highest in the mid-to-high 2,000 range and starts to reduce above 3,000. On the other hand, the decrease above 3,000 is much smaller than it’s under 1,000.
Steeper curves generally offer a greater selection of control when operated under a variable speed controller against some fixed altitude or pressure mind. These pumps could be problematic when operating in parallel or starting against varying system mind conditions. … Flatter curves operate fine in across-the-line software so long as the static or pressure head remains relatively constant. They also work well in closed-loop (and many open-loop) circulation applications when operated under a variable speed controller.
- When is efficiency significant?
The power required by a pump is directly proportional to both the flow and the head that it produces. As flow and/or head boost (s) so does the power demanded. Conversely, power is inversely proportional to hydraulic efficiency. For the identical flow and head, an increase in efficiency reduces the power requirement.
As the cost per kilowatt-hour increases, so will the savings because of increased pump efficiency.